Class 10 Biology Control and Coordination Central nervous system

Central nervous system

  • The brain and spinal cord together constitutes the central nervous system.
  • Central nervous system receives the message from all the parts of the body and integrates it.
  • The spinal cord is a long, tubular bundle of neurons which carry information between the brain and the rest of the body.
  • Human brain is covered by a bony box inside which the brain is contained in a fluid-filled balloon which provides shock absorption.
  • Spinal cord is enclosed in the vertebral column.

Fig. brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system  

Human brain

  • Human brain consists of three major parts- fore-brain, mid-brain and hind-brain.
  • Fore brain is the main thinking part of the brain.
  • Separate areas of the forebrain are specialized for hearing, smell, sight etc.
  • Involuntary actions of the body which are not under our control are controlled by the mid brain and hind brain.
  • Hind brain is divided into two parts cerebellum and medulla.
  • Cerebellum of the hind brain controls balance, posture and smooth movement of muscles.
  • Medulla of the hind brain controls heart rate, breathing rate and reflexes such as sneezing, swallowing, vomiting etc.

Fig.Human brain  

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