Central nervous system
- The brain and spinal cord together constitutes the central nervous system.
- Central nervous system receives the message from all the parts of the body and integrates it.
- The spinal cord is a long, tubular bundle of neurons which carry information between the brain and the rest of the body.
- Human brain is covered by a bony box inside which the brain is contained in a fluid-filled balloon which provides shock absorption.
- Spinal cord is enclosed in the vertebral column.
Fig. brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system
- Human brain consists of three major parts- fore-brain, mid-brain and hind-brain.
- Fore brain is the main thinking part of the brain.
- Separate areas of the forebrain are specialized for hearing, smell, sight etc.
- Involuntary actions of the body which are not under our control are controlled by the mid brain and hind brain.
- Hind brain is divided into two parts cerebellum and medulla.
- Cerebellum of the hind brain controls balance, posture and smooth movement of muscles.
- Medulla of the hind brain controls heart rate, breathing rate and reflexes such as sneezing, swallowing, vomiting etc.