Class 10 Biology Our Environment Producers, consumers and decomposers

Producers, consumers and decomposers

Organisms are grouped as producers, consumers and decomposers based on the manner in which they obtain their sustenance from the environment.


  • All organisms which can prepare their own food by photosynthesis using the radiant energy of the sun absorbed by the chlorophyll of the leaves are called producers.

Fig. Producers


  • The organisms which consume the food produced either directly or indirectly are called consumers.
  • Consumers can be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary consumers based on their mode of nutrition.
  • All herbivores and some parasites are primary consumers. Example- rabbit, which eats grass.

Fig. A producer


  • Many small carnivores and some parasites are secondary consumers. Example- snake, which eats rabbits.

Fig. A secondary consumer


  • Larger carnivores and omnivores are tertiary consumers. Example- owl, which eats snakes.

Fig. A tertiary consumer



  • The organisms which break down the dead remains and waste products of organisms are called decomposers.

Fig. Decomposers- fungi

  • Decomposers break down the complex organic substances into simple inorganic substances in the soil which is used by the plants.

Share these Notes with your friends  

< Prev Next >

You can check our 5-step learning process