Class 11 Biology Biological Classification Introduction


  • Since the dawn of civilization, there have been many attempts to classify living organisms.

Carolus Linnaeus discovered a two Kingdom system of classification with Plantae and Animalia kingdoms, but this system did not distinguish between the eukaryotes and prokaryotes, unicellular and multicellular organisms, and photosynthetic (green algae) and non-photosynthetic (fungi) organisms.


Fig. Carolus Linnaeus 

  • H. Whittaker (1969) proposed a Five Kingdom Classification, and the kingdoms defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

The main criteria for classification used by Whittaker include cell structure, thallus organisation, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships

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