Class 11 Biology The Living World Introduction


  • Main characteristics of living organisms are
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Metabolism
  • Cellular Organization
  • Consciousness
  • Growth – Increase in mass and number of individuals is growth. Multicellular organisms grow by cell division. It is irreversible permanent change.
  • Reproduction – Formation of new organisms of the similar kind.
  • Metabolism – Biochemical changes occur continuously inside our body which leads to the formation and interconversion of chemicals. All the chemical changes occurring inside our body is referred to as metabolism.
  • Cellular organization – All living organisms are made up of cells which perform all functions inside the body.
  • Consciousness – is the awareness of one’s surroundings and actions. We have sense organs which helps us to understand ourselves and surroundings. Plants respond to external factors like light, temperature, water, etc.

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