Class 12 Biology Biodiversity and Conservation Introduction


  • In our biosphere immense diversity (or heterogeneity) exists not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organization ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes.
  • Biodiversity can be defined as the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organization.
  • Various types of biodiversity are-
  • Genetic diversity- A single species might show high diversity at the genetic level over its distributional range. Example- The genetic variation of the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria in potency and concentration of the active chemical reserpine that the plant produces.


Fig. Rauwolfia 

  • Species diversity: The diversity at the species level. For example, the Western Ghats have a greater amphibian species diversity than the Eastern Ghats.


Fig. western ghats

  • Ecological diversity: diversity at the ecosystem level. For example- deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows of India has a greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country like Norway.


Fig. coral reefs

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