Class 12 Biology Organisms and Populations Introduction


Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment.

Ecology deals with four levels of biological organization –

  • Organism- a living entity which can function on its own.
  • Populations- sum of all living organisms of the same species living in a particular geographical area.
  • Communities- a group of people living together in one place.
  • Biomes- a large geographical area of various plants and animals.

Fig. deer, an organism  

Fig. population of deer  

Fig.  deer, elephant and tiger form a community

Fig. a biome with different plants and animals

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