Class 12 Physics Electromagnetic Induction | Direction of Induced current |

**Direction of Induced current: Lenz law**

Induced current opposes **CHANGE** in flux.

** Example1:** -

- Consider a region where magnetic field is acting in downward direction.
- Let magnetic field be 20T and it gets converted to 10T in the downward direction.
- As the magnetic field is changing therefore there is change in the flux which is equal to the decrease in the flux.
- As there is change in the flux there will be induced current.
- Flux of the induced current will try to oppose the decrease in the flux.
- Therefore the direction of induced flux will also be in the downward direction.
- Applying Fleming’s Right hand Thumb rule the direction of current will be given in the clockwise direction.

** Example2:**-

- Consider a magnetic field of 20T in the upward direction.If the magnetic flux is reduced to 10T in the downward direction.
- Both magnitude and the direction are changing.
- As flux is changing therefore there will be induced current.
- The direction of the induced flux will be in the opposite direction. i.e. upward direction.
- The induced flux will oppose the change which is the downward direction.
- The direction of the current will be in the anticlockwise direction.

__Example3:-__

- Consider a region having downward magnetic field and there is a rectangular loop which is entering the region of magnetic field.
- As a result flux increases, the induced flux will oppose the increase in the flux.i.e. it will decrease the flux.
- Therefore induced flux will be in the upward direction.
- As a result the induced current will be in the anti-clockwise direction.

__Example4:-__

- Consider a region having magnetic field in the downward direction and a rectangular loop which is coming out of the magnetic field with some velocity v.
- As it is coming out therefore flux is decreasing, current will be induced because of change in flux.
- Induced flux will try to oppose the change i.e. it will try to increase the flux.
- Induced flux is in the downward direction as a result the direction of current will be clock wise.

** Problem:- **Use Lenz’s law to determine the direction of induced current in thesituations described by Fig.:

(a) A wire of irregular shape turning into a circular shape;

(b) A circular loop being deformed into a narrow straight wire.

** Answer:- **According to Lenz’s law, the direction of the induced Emf is such that it tends to produce a current that opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produced it.

(a) When the shape of the wire changes, the flux piercing through the unit surface area increases. As a result, the induced current produces an opposing flux. Hence, the induced current flows along adcb.

(b) When the shape of a circular loop is deformed into a narrow straight wire, the flux piercing the surface decreases. Hence, the induced current flows along

e= (4x3.14x50x0.1x10)/ (2x3.14x0.2)

e = 5x10^{-5}V a’d’c’b’.

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