Class 7 Biology Forests: Our Lifeline Constituents of forests

Constituents of forests

  • Forest is the habitat of several animals and plants.
  • Jackals, porcupine, elephants, boar live deep in the forest.


Fig. A jackal, a porcupine, an elephant 

  • Trees like sal, teak, semal, sheesham, neem, palash, amla, bamboo, khair can be seen in the forest.


Fig. Sal tree

  • Shrubs, herbs and grasses are also found in the forests.


Fig. Shrubs, herbs, grasses

  • The trees are covered with creepers and climbers.


Fig. Climbers 

  • Inside the forest it is dark because light cannot reach through the leaves inside the forest.


Fig. Dark forest 

  • Oil, spices, fodder, gum and medicinal plants are also the products of forest.


Fig. Spices, gum, fodder 

  • Seeds of the plants germinate and develop into seedlings under favorable conditions provided by the forests.


Fig. Seed germination

  • The overlapping of the uppermost branches of the trees like a roof over the other plants in the forests is called as canopy.
  • Canopy intercept the flow of rain drops and hence the raindrops do no hit the forest floor directly.


Fig. Trees 

  • The different horizontal layers created by different types and sizes of crowns of trees in the forest are called understoreys.


Fig. Understoreys 

  • Tall and large trees form the top layer, shrubs and tall grasses form the middle layer and herbs constitute the lowest layer.
  • Due to the variation in climatic conditions, different types of plants and animals are seen in the forest.


Fig. Different plants, different animals in the forest

  • Numerous insects, spiders, ants, squirrels can be seen on the bark of the trees, plant leaves, and on decaying leaves of forest floor.



Fig. Insects, spider

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