Constituents of forests
- Forest is the habitat of several animals and plants.
- Jackals, porcupine, elephants, boar live deep in the forest.
Fig. A jackal, a porcupine, an elephant
- Trees like sal, teak, semal, sheesham, neem, palash, amla, bamboo, khair can be seen in the forest.
Fig. Sal tree
- Shrubs, herbs and grasses are also found in the forests.
Fig. Shrubs, herbs, grasses
- The trees are covered with creepers and climbers.
- Inside the forest it is dark because light cannot reach through the leaves inside the forest.
Fig. Dark forest
- Oil, spices, fodder, gum and medicinal plants are also the products of forest.
Fig. Spices, gum, fodder
- Seeds of the plants germinate and develop into seedlings under favorable conditions provided by the forests.
Fig. Seed germination
- The overlapping of the uppermost branches of the trees like a roof over the other plants in the forests is called as canopy.
- Canopy intercept the flow of rain drops and hence the raindrops do no hit the forest floor directly.
- The different horizontal layers created by different types and sizes of crowns of trees in the forest are called understoreys.
- Tall and large trees form the top layer, shrubs and tall grasses form the middle layer and herbs constitute the lowest layer.
- Due to the variation in climatic conditions, different types of plants and animals are seen in the forest.
Fig. Different plants, different animals in the forest
- Numerous insects, spiders, ants, squirrels can be seen on the bark of the trees, plant leaves, and on decaying leaves of forest floor.
Fig. Insects, spider