Class 7 Biology Forests: Our Lifeline Agro-chemicals and their effects

Agro-chemicals and their effects

  • The chemicals which are used in agriculture are called agro-chemicals. Example- herbicides, fungicides, pesticides.
  • Increasing amounts of artificial fertilizers can cause eutrophication.
  • Integrated organic farming is a cyclical zero-waste procedure where waste products from one process are cycled in as nutrients for other processes.


  1. Cattle excreta (dung) are used as manure.
  2. Crop waste is used to create compost, which can be used as a natural fertilizer or can be used to generate natural gas.


Fig. cattle dung used as manure

Radioactive wastes

  • Radioactive wastes are those which contain radioactive materials.
  • Radiation given off by nuclear waste causes mutations to occur at a very high rate.
  • At high doses nuclear radiation is lethal but at lower doses it creates various genetic disorders such as cancer.
  • Storage of nuclear waste after pre-treatment done in shielded containers buried within the rocks, about 500 m deep below the earth’s surface.


Fig. shielded containers to store nuclear waste

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